Journals, Articles, Academic Research Papers and Other Public References to The Virtual Foundry

Much of the progress made in applications for this technology is developed by our dedicated Partner Innovators, or in partnership with them. These partners are experts in their fields and have a wealth of knowledge and experience. They work closely with us to develop innovative applications for our technology. The following Papers and reference materials come from a variety of sources, including our partners, academic institutions, and industry experts. We are constantly working to expand our knowledge base and to develop new and innovative applications for our technology.

Our Partner Innovators are a key part of our success. They provide all of us with valuable insights and feedback, and they help the open community develop and test new applications for this technology. We are grateful for their partnership and collaboration.

We are also grateful to the academic institutions and industry experts who have contributed to our knowledge base. Their research and expertise have been invaluable to us. We also ask that you reach out if there is expertise you think we can help you with. Sometimes we can assist directly, and other times we can put you in contact with others doing similar research.

When possible we ask that this information be made available to the general user community. The Virtual Foundry will curate and share this growing list of scholarly articles, use-cases and general research whenever possible. The Virtual Foundry is a place where people can share and learn from each other. We ask that you share your work with us whenever possible. We will curate and share this growing list of scholarly articles, use-cases, and general research with the community. This will help us all learn and grow together.

Sharing information is one of the most important things we can do. It helps us to understand the world around us and to make informed decisions. It also helps us to connect with others and to build a more just and equitable society.

We are committed to continuing to develop new and innovative applications for FFF/FDM 3D Metal Printing technology. We believe that this platform will change the world. We are excited to see what the future holds.

We hope that you will join us in sharing your work with the greater TVF community, and the world in general.

Together we’ll take #FFFmetal to the next level.

Shrinkage and deformation compensation in metal fused filament fabrication (mf3) sintered copper components using 3d scanning and inverse deformation by Jean E. Montes-Ramirez, Alexis Lopez, Md Sahid Hassan, Joseph Munoz, Sabina Arroyo, Cory Marquez, Saqlain Zaman, Alan Nunez, Md Shahjahan Mahmud, Alejandro Gandara and Yirong Lin

Optimizing metal part distortion in the material extrusion-thermal debinding-sintering process: An experimental and numerical study by Xueying Wei, Xujun Li and Rüdiger Bahr

Optimization of extrusion-based additive manufacturing of bronze metal parts using a CuSn10/Polylactic acid composite by Xueying Wei, Ingolf Behm, Tony Winkler and Rüdiger Bähr

Characterization of Radiation Shielding Capabilities of High Concentration PLA-W Composite for 3D Printing of Radiation Therapy Collimators by by José Velásquez, Melani Fuentealba and Mauricio Santibáñez

A design strategy for removing the debinding and sintering gas in additive manufactured samples of a bronze/polylactic acid filament by F. Cucinotta, G. Di Bella, M. Raffaele and F. Salmeri

Energy Efficiency in Additive Manufacturing: Condensed Review by Ismail Fidan, Vivekanand Naikwadi, Suhas Alkunte, Roshan Mishra and Khalid Tantawi

Multifunctional HKUST-1-3D-printed device for the simultaneous extraction of hydrocarbons and dyes from water by Marta Bauzá, Neus Munar, Andreu Figuerola, Gemma Turnes Palomino and Carlos Palomino Cabello

The Effect of 3D Printing Parameter Variations on Tensile Strength Using Filament Made of PLA-Titanium by Mahros Darsin, M. Khoirur Rifky, Mochamad Asrofi, Hari Arbiantara Basuki, Robertoes Koekoeh Koentjoro Wibowo, Dwi Djumhariyanto, Moch Agus Choiron

3D-Printed Nanostructured Copper Substrate Boosts the Sodiated Capability and Stability of Antimony Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries by Hui Gao, Wanli Gao, and Martin Pumera

Towards Aluminium Metal Fused Filament Fabrication by Sánchez Casla and José Ignacio

3D printing for heat transfer: characterisation of additive manufactured copper by Bradley D. Bock, Keagan Pretorius, and and Seth. Scott

High Densification Level and Hardness Values of Additively Manufactured 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated by Fused Filament Fabrication by Nur Hidayah Musa, Nurainaa Mazlan, Shahir Mohd Yusuf, Nur Azmah Nordin, Saiful Amri Mazlan and Nong Gao

Establishment of Select Printing Parameters for Low-Cost Fused Deposition Modeling Printed Cast Iron Through Experimental Optimization by Matthew Drummond, Abdelkrem Eltaggaz, Ibrahim Nouzil, and Ibrahim Deiab

3D printed imaging apertures for MicroPattern gas detector based full field of view X-ray fluorescence spectrometers by P.M.S. Carvalho, F.D. Leite, Gil Tavares, P.M.M. Correia, J.M.M. Oliveira, J.F.C.A. Veloso and A.L.M. Silva

Characterization of the Metal Fused Filament Fabrication Process for Manufacturing of Pure Copper Inductors
by Philipp Schüßler, Jonas Franke, Steffen Czink, Steffen Antusch, Daniel Mayer, Stephan Laube, Thomas Hanemann, Volker Schulze and Stefan Dietrich

3D Printing of high melting iron alloys using metal-fused deposition modeling: a comprehensive review by Matthew Drummond, Abdelkrem Eltaggaz and Ibrahim Deiab

Integration of Metal Additive Manufacturing Using Fused Deposition Modeling in Mechanical Engineering Education by Chinmaya Joshi, Stephen Pierson, Jackson Minnick, Corbin Russ and Han Hu

Multi-Material Additive Manufacturing: Creating IN718-AISI 316L Bimetallic Parts by 3D Printing, Debinding, and Sintering by Paolo Ferro, Alberto Fabrizi, Hamada Elsayed and Gianpaolo Savio

Tensile strength, elastic modulus and thermal conductivity of 3D-Printed components using bronze/PLA filament by Rubén Lostado-Lorza, Marina Corral-Bobadilla, Saúl Iñiguez-Macedo, Fátima Somovilla-Gómez and Celia Sabando-Fraile

Developing Additively Manufactured Iron Powder-filled PLA Composites by Jeevan Kumar, Orkhan Huseynov, Ismail Fidan, and Mustafa Rajabali

Effect of printing parameters on extrusion-based additive manufacturing using highly filled CuSn12 filament by Beatrice Aruanno, Alessandro Paoli, Armando Viviano Razionale and Francesco Tamburrino

Solar Power System for 3D Printing on Lunar Surface for In-Situ Resource Utilization By Rohit Prashant Gaikwad

A Fully 3D Printed, Multi-Material, and High Operating Temperature Electromagnetic Actuator by Sebastian Mettes, Justin Bates, Kenneth W. Allen, and Yi C. Mazumdar

Characterization of novel self-healing polymer blends for additive manufacturing by Truman James Word

Characterization of Metal FDM process and final mechanical performances evaluation by Ferdinando Ursi

A Parametric Optimization Of Lattice Structure Heat Sinks: An Integrated Computational And Experimental Approach By Turner Mccoy

Design and Fabrication of a High-Performance Heat Exchanger Using an Optimized Three-Dimensional Surface Structure Through Additive Manufacturing by Seth T. Waters

Copper Composites and Laser Sintering: Novel Hybridization Method for 3D Printed Electronics by Rémi Rafael and Paddy K. L. Chan

Copper 3D-Printed Electrodes for Ammonia Electrosynthesis via Nitrate Reduction by Juan V. Perales-Rondon, Daniel Rojas, Wanli Gao, and Martin Pumera

Engineering 3D Printed Structures Towards Electrochemically Driven Green Ammonia Synthesis: A Perspective by A. K. K. Padinjareveetil, J. V. Perales-Rondon and M. Pumera

Application of Composite Filament with the Addition of Metallic Powders in 3D Printing by Agnieszka Dzindziora, Maciej Sułowski, and Damian Dzienniak

Indirect Induction Sintering of Metal Parts Produced through Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing by Manuel Ortega Varela de Seijas, Andreas Bardenhagen, Thomas Rohr and Enrico Stoll

Physical-mechanical behaviors of stainless steel plate-lattice built by material extrusion additive manufacturing by Dayuee Jiang and Fuda Ning

Overview of Debinding Methods For Parts Manufactured Using Powder Material Extrusion by Zahra Lotfizarei, Amir Mostafapour, Ahmed Barari, Alireza Jalili, and Albert E Patterson

Design of bimetallic 3D-printed electrocatalysts via galvanic replacement to enhance energy conversion systems by Jose Muñoz, Christian Iffelsberger, Edurne Redondo and Martin Pumera

Investigation of the manufacturability of a copper coil for use in space components by means of the fused filament fabrication process by S. Uffelmann and S. Pestotnik

Investigation and Improvement of Processing Parameters of a Copper-Filled Polymer Filament in Fused Filament Fabrication as a Basis for the Fabrication of Low-Porosity Metal Parts by Elmar Moritzer and Christian Lennart Elsner

Experimental Study on Metal Parts under Variable 3D Printing and Sintering Orientations Using Bronze/PLA Hybrid Filament Coupled with Fused Filament Fabrication by Xueying Wei, Ingolf Behm,Tony Winkler, Stefan Scharf, Xujun Li, and Rüdiger Bähr

Machine Learning-Based Void Percentage Analysis of Components Fabricated with the Low-Cost Metal Material Extrusion Process by Zhicheng Zhang and Ismail Fidan

Suitability of Low-Cost Additive Manufacturing for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells by David Alexander

Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Polylactic Acid /Tin Bronze Tensile Strength Bars Additive Manufactured by Fused Deposition Modelling by Senad Dizdar and Amogh Vedantha Krishna

FDM 3D-Printed 17-4 PH Stainless Steel : Its Properties, Behaviors, and Potential by Sterling Kleist, Douglas Dunham and Anthony J. Wagner

A Review on Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing of Metal and How It Compares with Metal Injection Moulding by Chanun Suwanpreecha and Anchalee Manonukul

Fully metallic copper 3D-printed electrodes via sintering for electrocatalytic biosensing by Edurne Redondo and Martin Pumera

Characteristics of 3D Printable Bronze PLA-Based Filament Composites for Gaskets by Marcela Sava, Ramona Nagy and Karoly Menyhardt

Biomedical Applications of Metal 3D Printing by Luis Fernando Velásquez-García and Yosef Kornbluth

Feasibility study of producing multi metal parts by Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technique by Mehrdad Mousapour, Mika Salmi, Lassi Klemettinen and Jouni Partanen

Evaluating the Thermal Performance of Topology Optimized Low-Cost 3D Printed Heat Sink Made of Copper by Bilal Taha

Prediction of Dimensional Changes of Low-Cost Metal Material Extrusion Fabricated Parts Using Machine Learning Techniques by Zhicheng Zhang, James Femi-Oyetoro, Ismail Fidan, Muhammad Ismail and Michael Allen

Rheology scaling of spherical metal powders dispersed in thermoplastics and its correlation to the extrudability of filaments for 3D printing by Amm G. Hasib, Stanislau Niauzorau, Weiheng Xu, Sridhar Niverty, Natalya Kublik, Jason Williams, Nikhilesh Chawla, Kenan Song and Bruno Azeredo

Fused Filament Fabrication of Metallic Components for Semi-professional and Home Use by Günther Poszvek, Gerald Stattler, Erich Markl, Rolf Seemann and Maximilian Lackner

Preliminary Mechanical Characterization Of The Low-Cost Metal 3D Printing by Hao Lu

Preliminary Investigation into Metal-Material Extrusion by Shane Terry, Ismail Fidan & Khalid Tantawi

This paper has excellent detail on the fundamentals of working with Filamet™.
It also includes excellent graphs of the Thermogravimetric Data. This can give you a great head start with the Debinding part of the process.

Mechanical and Thermal Analyses of Metal-PLA Components Fabricated by Metal Material Extrusion by Mahdi Mohammadizadeh, Hao Lu, Ismail Fidan, Khalid Tantawi, Ankit Gupta, Seymur Hasanov, Zhicheng Zhang, Frank Alifui-Segbaya and Allan Rennie

Microstructure and Phase Analysis of 3D-Printed Components Using Bronze Metal Filament by Zhe Lu, Oyedotun Isaac Ayeni, Xuehui Yang, Hye-Yeong Park, Yeon-Gil Jung and Jing Zhang

Experimental Work with 3D Printing of SS316L Metal Filament by Karthikesh Gante Lokesha Renukaradhya

Sintering And Characterizations Of 3D Printed Bronze Metal Filament by Oyedotun Isaac Ayeni

Thermal Conductivity of Sintered Copper Samples Prepared using 3D Printing-Compatible Polymer Composite Filaments by Navid Dehdari Ebrahimi and Y. Sungtaek Ju

Explore the different offerings available in FFF Metal. The linked graphic shows a side by side comparison of Desktop Metal, Markforged, BASF and The Virtual Foundry. Watch the full webinar here.

A side by side look at Ultrafuse by BASF and Filamet™ by The Virtual Foundry.

This article is pretty interesting. A concept we hadn’t thought of before we read it.

Filament is designed to work with low- to high-end equipment
Additive Report by Sue Roberts

3D Printing News Briefs: January 27, 2020 by Sarah Saunders

Congressional Research Service
August 2, 2019

The Texas A&M Department of Construction Science is laying the groundwork to become the leading research hub for construction projects on the Moon and Mars.
By Richard Nira, Texas A&M University College of Architecture, JULY 12, 2019

March 2017 – Argonne National Laboratory



Printing a Swirly Cone



Stainless Steel Colossus



The Virtual Foundry is first to market with an affordable metal 3d printing system that dramatically reduces the entry cost of Metal 3D Printing. Filamet™ from The Virtual Foundry makes any existing 3d printer a Metal 3D Printer. The Virtual Foundry provides a full cycle solution that includes debinding and sintering equipment letting anyone 3d Print pure metal parts in-house for prototyping and short-run manufacturing.

Filamet™ in the Field


Ledwell Plastics: How does Filamet™ fit in to plastic injection molding?


The Virtual Foundry likes to share as much information as possible. We hope to build this category into a very robust Wiki that will cover all of these topics. Some of this information may be directly about TVF, or it may be about topics related to our technology and methods of improving the various processes.

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